By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This sensible instruction manual brings jointly quite a lot of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible adventure of the authors and diverse specialists inside of Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for daily use by way of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a number of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the tools to be had for his or her prediction, detection and overview. it's going to even be worthy to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference guide.
checklist of significant Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain strategies
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain evaluate
five. precis and total Conclusions - support Chart
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Extra resources for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
Undercompaction is likely to occur in interlayered or underlying argillaceous series. It is also possible for abnormal pressure to develop in badly drained reservoirs (which are often carbonate in nature) due to their association with evaporites. Although diagenetic processes cause a significant increase in water volume, the part they play in the creation of abnormal pressure remains to be proven, but is probably only marginal. 6. 3. At shallow depths organic matter contained in the sediments is broken down by bacterial action, generating biogenic methane.
Many observations and measurements have been taken in mines and tunnels showing this to be far from the case. Relative to the vertical stress, it is possible for horizontal stresses to be : - weaker (known as vertical fields) ; - similar in magnitude (isotropic fields, wrongly called hydrostatic) ; - greater or even much greater (4 to 6 times or more : they are then known as lateral, or compressive fields). At very great depth and for fairly plastic rocks such as salt or marl, stresses tend to equalize and conditions probably become close to isotropic.
During sedimentation, the sealing efficiency of evaporite deposits is a barrier to vertical expulsion of fluid from underlying sediments. If lateral hydraulic conductivity is insufficient for adequate horizontal drainage, the overburden effect will continue to increase and may bring about abnormal pressure in reservoirs and clays alike. This means that argillaceous levels can be undercompacted, as in Northern Germany, where Permian shales underlying Zechstein salt are associated with overpressured gas reservoirs.
Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation by Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet