By Ran Xinquan
Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs presents operators with the correct workflow structures and engineering thoughts for designing, making plans and enforcing water injection platforms that might enhance restoration elements. whilst utilized in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is likely one of the low-budget equipment for making sure greatest construction premiums. This booklet presents either theoretical research and functional instances for designing and comparing water injection platforms and realizing key construction variables taken with making specified predictions for oil and water generating charges, water injection premiums, and restoration efficiency.
This booklet basically explains the features of ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear move theories. those subject matters are then utilized to layout and implementation. program circumstances of 4 oilfields are incorporated to aid improve strategies whereas illustrating the correct workflow for making sure waterflooding functionality research and optimization. The booklet can be utilized as a reference for box technical group of workers, or as technical aid for the administration personnel.
- Discusses features of low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear stream theories
- Provides specific examinations of elements similar to pressure sensitivity, fracturing timing, and nonlinear stream theory
- Describes layout and implementation of complicated waterflooding systems
- Includes genuine case reviews from 4 oilfields
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Extra info for Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice
9%. In the Hua-152 block, the output began to decline when the water-cut reached 34%. 6% (Figs. 1-23 and 1-24). 7938 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Production duration (years) FIGURE 1-22 The decline curve of old wells brought into production before 2000 in the Wuliwan block. 9869 15 10 5 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 Production duration (years) 19 21 FIGURE 1-23 The decline curve of old wells brought into production before 1999 in the Hua-152 block. 9772 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Production duration (years) Dimensionless oil/fluid production index FIGURE 1-24 The decline curve of old wells brought into production before 1995 in the Wangyao block.
1-27 and 1-28). So it can be concluded that in the waterflood production of ultralowpermeability reservoirs in the Ordos Basin, the PI changes follow the same trajectory, whose main feature is that productivity indexes, usually low, will decline as the water-cut increases, and when the water-cut reaches about 40%, the fluid PIs will increase but the oil PIs will continue to decline. 00 0 20 40 60 80 100 Water cut (%) FIGURE 1-28 Oil PI curves in the waterflood production of Triassic reservoirs.
However, due to their stronger filtrational resistance, poor deliverability, and quick energy depletion, the pressure in these zones would drop promptly. When the injectors started to inject water, the water would break through into the higher-permeability zones of weaker filtrational resistance. Such breakthroughs accompanied by great pressure drop in higher-permeability zones would lead to serious water fingering, thus reducing both the sweep efficiency and the displacement. On the other hand, the method of water injection before commissioning (advanced injection) can keep the water moving evenly in the formations because the reservoir pressure is still in an original balance, with the pressure at various points almost the same.
Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice by Ran Xinquan