By Stuart A. Rice

ISBN-10: 0470226889

ISBN-13: 9780470226889

This sequence presents the chemical physics box with a discussion board for severe, authoritative reviews of advances in each region of the self-discipline.

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**Additional resources for Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol. 140**

**Example text**

This last statement is only true if the vector has pure even or pure odd parity, xðGÞ ¼ ÆxðGy Þ. ) The static average is the same as an equilibrium average to leading order. That is, it is supposed that the exponential may be linearized with respect to all the reservoir forces except the zeroth one, which is the temperature, X0;r ¼ 1=T, and hence x0 ðGÞ ¼ HðGÞ, the Hamiltonian. From the deﬁnition of the adiabatic change, the linear transport coefﬁcient may be written 1 _ hxðGÞx Á ðGÞi0 kB Z t 1 _ xðt _ þ t0 Þi0 ¼ dt0 hxðtÞ 2kB Àt L ð163Þ In the intermediate regime, this may be recognized as the Green–Kubo expression for the thermal conductivity [84], which in turn is equivalent to the Onsager expression for the transport coefﬁcients [2].

44 phil attard Likewise the even part of the probability can be tested by taking the steadystate average force. Using similar linearization arguments to the earlier ones, it may be shown that hXs ðGÞiss ¼ Xr ð164Þ which is the expected result. Again this result is true for vector components of pure parity. This conﬁrms that the even part of the steady-state probability distribution, Eq. (160), is correct since there is one, and only one, even exponent that is linear in Xr that will yield this result.

The reservoir force and the subsystem force must always be kept conceptually distinct even though they are numerically equal in the optimum state. In the event that the external reservoir actually comprises two spatially separated reservoirs with a thermodynamic difference between them, then an external thermodynamic gradient is being applied across the subsystem, and in the optimum state there is a steady ﬂux of x from one external reservoir to the other through the subsystem, which remains in the state x.

### Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol. 140 by Stuart A. Rice

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