By Miles McPhee
At a time whilst the polar areas are present process speedy and unheard of swap, knowing exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is necessary for realistically predicting the long run nation of sea ice. via providing a size platform mostly unaffected via floor waves, drifting sea ice presents a special laboratory for learning points of geophysical boundary layer flows which are tremendous tough to degree in different places. This publication attracts on either broad observations and theoretical ideas to improve a concise description of the effect of rigidity, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that keep an eye on exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean while sea ice is current. a number of attention-grabbing and distinct observational information units are used to demonstrate various points of ice-ocean interplay starting from the effect of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice region, to how nonlinearities within the equation of country for seawater impact blending within the Weddell Sea.
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Extra info for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
8. , during the time of the upwelling event. 8a). We then calculated a lower limit on the kinematic stress curl according to ∇ × τ0 ≥ ∆τ0y ∆τ0x − ∆x ∆y where the differentials are approximated by differences over the grid scale ∆x = ∆y = 5 km, with results shown in Fig. 8b. , 500 m). If the numerical value of stress curl from Fig. 8b, evaluated in the vicinity of the ship, is multiplied by 10, the resulting pycnocline displacement is about the same as observed (McPhee et al. 2005), and we thus inferred that the March 19 upwelling event was a result of Ekman pumping.
When the realization interval is too short (<5 min) much of the covariance captured at the longer realization times is missed, because the interval is comparable to the time scales of the energy containing eddies. For sets with realization intervals in the range from about 6 to 20 min, the mean values lie within or near the conﬁdence interval for the standard 15-min realization set (indicated by the dashed lines). Yet for longer realization intervals (30–60 min), the mean value is lower by as much as a watt per square meter.
Tennekes and Lumley (1972) list pertinent characteristics of turbulent flow: (i) turbulence is irregular (as in Hinze’s definition); (ii) it is highly diffusive, which causes rapid mixing and increases transfer rates; (iii) it occurs at high Reynolds number,1 as instabilities from interaction of viscous and inertial forces manifest themselves; (iv) it is both highly rotational and three dimensional; (v) it is essentially dissipative, meaning that work must be done to maintain viscous losses to internal energy of the flow; and (vi) turbulence at high Reynolds number is a characteristic of the flow, rather than the particular fluid.
Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes by Miles McPhee