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Extra resources for Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms
Tower or mast structures may also interfere with 22 The Transfer Laws of the Air-Sea Interface the air flow. Upto 20% errors in individual observations of Reynolds fluxes have been common. Yelland et al. (1998) carried out a comprehensive investigation of flow distortion effects on a ship, reporting: “Originally, the four anemometers [on the foremast of the research vessel Charles Darwin] gave drag coefficient values that differed by up to 20% from one to another,” and were up to 60% too high. They also found flow distortion to depend on wind direction relative to the ship.
70) . On the left-hand side are the nondimensional Forces; on the right the three Fluxes √ represented by u ∗ / gh, θ ∗ /T, q ∗ . The functions on the right, M, S, and B represent neutral momentum and scalar transfer laws and buoyancy corrections. 5 ln S √ , u Ka g gh K a g 4/3 . 61q ∗ u ∗2 T 1/4 and X (x) = ln 1+x 1 + x2 + 2 ln − 2 tan−1 (x) + π/2 . 70 defines a surface in u ∗ , θ ∗ , q ∗ space. A triplet of observed Forces U (h), θ(h) − θs , q(h) − qs defines three surfaces, hopefully intersecting in a single point.
Side by side with radiant transfers, the interface allows, and even facilitates through its complex topography, the passage of heat via the molecular processes of conduction and diffusion. Usually heat transfer proceeds from the ocean to the atmosphere (only under rare conditions in reverse) along two pathways, as “sensible” and latent heat transfer. Sensible heat raises or lowers air temperature, but is the junior partner: The bulk of the heat transfer from the world ocean to the atmosphere occurs via evaporation and the attendant transfer of latent heat.
Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms by G T Csanady,NetLibrary, Inc.