By Susan A. Minchin, John G. Csernansky (auth.), Professor John G. Csernansky (eds.)
Antipsychotic medications have been first chanced on in 1953, and never because the past due Nineteen Seventies has the guide of Experimental Pharmacology taken up this subject. a brand new therapy of this subject will be due lower than any conditions; notwithstanding, this is often now rather precise, seeing that awesome development has been made on a number of fronts in furthering our figuring out of the mechanisms of antipsychotic drug motion. First, now we have realized that schizophrenia is an disease with particu lar neuroanatomical abnormalities, a lot of which recommend that the affliction is as a result of blunders in neurodevelopment. those findings have helped to shape a context for figuring out neurochemical aberrations within the sickness and recommend new ways for pharmacological therapy. Propelled ahead through swift advances in neurochemical anatomy, present pathophysiological hypotheses of schizophrenia and antipsychotic drug motion have taken at the visual appeal of advanced electric circuit diagrams. moment, molecular biology experiences have now published that there's a multiplicity of dopamine receptors (i. e. , D , DZshort' j DZlong, D , D , and D ), a few of that could turn into completely new goals for three four s antipsychotic drug motion. satirically, the advance of gear which are selec tive for those receptors and that may be used to enquire their functionality lags in the back of; but the invention of those new receptors bargains unprecedented opportu nities for constructing medicines with more desirable efficacy and less part effects.
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It produces hypotension and has a low potential for producing extrapyramidal symptoms (CHOUINARD and ARNon 1993). The late-developing extrapyramidal side effects of tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia are associated with the use of all antipsychotic drugs, as is the development of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (LIEBERMAN et al. 1991; CASSEY 1993; PEARLMAN 1986). These side effects are not well correlated with the high- or low-potency status of antipsychotics. E. Classification by Pharmacological Mechanism From the time that LABORIT observed that chlorpromazine had calming effects in psychiatric patients, the scientific community has sought to discover the mechanisms of action of antipsychotic compounds.
1987; BJERKENSTEDT 1989). Some antipsychotic compounds have been found to possess affinity for the 5HT3 receptor. For example, the dibenzoxazepine loxapine has a high affinity for the 5HT3 receptor as does the dibenzodiazepine clozapine (HOYER et al. 1989). However, 5HT3 antagonism alone may not be sufficient for antipsychotic activitiy, as the selective compound zacopride was found to have no significant antipsychotic effects in a recent pilot study (NEWCOMER et al. 1992). II. Partial D2 Agonists MELTZER (1980) and CARLSSON (1988) have both postulated that partial agonists at dopamine D z receptors may be capable of modulating dopamine release in the central nervous system through stimulation of dopamine autoreceptors.
Permagon, Oxford, pp 159-171 Spiegel R (1989) Psychopharmacology. An introduction. Wiley, London, pp 25-47 Stein DJ, Hollander E (1992) Low-dose pimozide augmentation of serotonin reuptake blockers in the treatment of trichotillomania. J Clin Psychiatry 53(4):123-126 Stoof JC, Kebabian JW (1981) Opposing roles for D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors in efflux of cAMP from rat neostriatum. Nature 294:366-368 Sun ahara RK, Seeman P, Van Tol HHM, Niznik HB (1993) Dopamine receptors and antipsychotic drug response.
Antipsychotics by Susan A. Minchin, John G. Csernansky (auth.), Professor John G. Csernansky (eds.)